计算机可以做什么 分享到:
What can’t computers do? 2017-10-07270110

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Welcome to 6 Minute English, where we bring you an intelligent topic and six related items of vocabulary. I’m Neil…
欢迎收听六分钟英语,节目中我们会讨论一个有智慧的话题,奉上六个相关的单词。我是尼尔。
And I’m Tim. And today we’re talking about AI – or Artificial Intelligence.
我是蒂姆。今天我们将讨论AI,即人工智能。
Artificial Intelligence is the ability of machines to copy human intelligent behaviour – for example, an intelligent machine can learn from its own mistakes, and make decisions based on what’s happened in the past.
人工智能是机器模仿人类智能行为的能力。例如,智能机器可以从其错误中吸取经验,根据过去发生的事做出决策。
There’s a lot of talk about AI these days, Neil, but it’s still just science fiction, isn’t it?
如今有很多人都谈到人工智能,但这仍然存在于科幻小说,不是吗?
That’s not true – AI is everywhere.Machine thinking is in our homes, offices, schools and hospitals.Computer algorithms are helping us drive our cars. They’re diagnosing what’s wrong with us in hospitals.They’re marking student essays… They’re telling us what to read on our smartphones…
不是的,人工智能随处可见。机器思维存在于我们的家中,办公室、学校和医院。计算机算法可以帮助我们开车。还可以在医院帮助我们诊断。还可以给学生的论文做标记。计算机算法告诉我们智能手机上有什么。
Well, that really does sound like science fiction – but it’s happening already, you say, Neil?
这听上去很像科幻小说,但你说这确实已经发生了,尼尔?
It’s definitely happening, Tim. And an algorithm, by the way, is a set of steps a computer follows in order to solve a problem.So can you tell me what was the name of the computer which famously beat world chess champion Garry Kasparov using algorithms in 1997?Was it…a) Hal, b) Alpha 60 or c) Deep Blue?
确实发生了。顺便说一下,算法是指计算机按照一套程序去解决问题。你能告诉我,1997年使用算法打败国际象棋冠军盖瑞·卡斯帕罗夫的计算机叫什么吗?a) 哈尔, b) 阿尔法 60,还是c)深蓝?
I’ll say Deep Blue. Although I’m just guessing.
我选深蓝。但我是猜的。
Was it an educated guess, Tim?
这是有根据的猜测吗,蒂姆?
I know a bit about chess…
我了解一点象棋。
An educated guess is based on knowledge and experience and is therefore likely to be correct. Well, we’ll find out later on how educated your guess was in this case, Tim!
有根据的猜测是基于知识和经验,因此很有可能是正确的。我们之后看看你今天的猜测是不是很有根据。
Indeed. But getting back to AI and what machines can do – are they any good at solving real-life problems?Computers think in zeros and ones don’t they? That sounds like a pretty limited language when it comes to life experience!
没错。我们回到人工智能上,以及机器能做什么。它们能够解决实际生活中的问题吗?计算机是二进制的思维,不是吗?这听上去当计算机遇到生活问题时,这种语言相当有限。
You would be surprised to what those zeroes and ones can do, Tim.Although you’re right that AI does have its limitations at the moment.And if something has limitations there’s a limit on what it can do or how good it can be.
你会对这些二进制语言能做的事情感到震惊的。但你说的没错,人工智能当下是有局限性的。如果某事有局限性是指它在能做和擅长做的地方有限制。
OK – well now might be a good time to listen to Zoubin Bharhramani, Professor of Information Engineering at the University of Cambridge and deputy director of the Leverhulme Centre for the Future of Intelligence.He’s talking about what limitations AI has at the moment.
这时候我们该听听佐宾·布哈拉曼尼的观点,他是剑桥大学信息工程教授以及勒维勒姆未来智能的中心的副主任。他将谈论人工智能当下有何局限性。
I think it’s very interesting how many of the things that we take for granted – we humans take for granted– as being sort of things we don’t even think about like how do we walk, how do we reach, how do we recognize our mother. You know, all these things. When you start to think how to implement them on a computer,you realize that it’s those things that are incredibly difficult to get computers to do,and that’s where the current cutting edge of research is.
很有趣的是,很多我们觉得理所当然的事,我们人类理所当然的事,例如我们不会思考我们是怎么走路的,怎么拿东西的,怎么认出自己的母亲的,你懂的,这些所有事我们都觉得理所应当。但当你开始思考如何将这些事施加于计算机上时,你会意识到,这些东西对于计算机来说是非常困难的。这也是当下前沿研究的所及之处。
If we take something for granted we don’t realise how important something is.
如果我们将某事视为理所当然,是指我们觉得一些事没那么重要。
You sometimes take me for granted, I think, Neil.
我觉得你没把我当一回事,尼尔。
No – I never take you for granted, Tim! You’re far too important for that!
不是的,我从来没有这么觉得。你非常非常重要。
Good to hear!So things we take for granted are doing every day tasks like walking, picking something up, or recognizing somebody. We implement – or perform – these things without thinking– Whereas it’s cutting edge research to try and program a machine to do them.
听到这个很开心。所以我们认为理所当然的事是我们每天都做的事,例如走路,拿起某件东西,或者认出某个人。我们不用思考就能完成这些事。然而前沿研究试图让机器也做相同的事。
Cutting edge means very new and advanced.It’s interesting isn’t it, that over ten years ago a computer beat a chess grand master– but the same computer would find it incredibly difficult to pick up a chess piece.
前沿的是指最新的,先进的。十多年前一台计算机打败了象棋大师,这很有趣,不是吗?但同一台计算机,却很难拿起一块象棋。
I know. It’s very strange. But now you’ve reminded me that we need the answer to today’s question.
我懂。这确实很奇怪。但你提醒了我今天问题的答案。
Which was: What was the name of the computer who famously beat world chess champion Garry Kasparov in 1997? Now, you said Deep Blue, Tim, and … that was the right answer!
问题是:1997年使用算法打败国际象棋冠军盖瑞·卡斯帕罗夫的计算机叫什么吗?你说的是深蓝,这就是正确答案!
You see, my educated guess was based on knowledge and experience!
你看,我的猜测是基于知识和经验的。
Or maybe you were just lucky. So, the IBM supercomputer Deep Blue played against US world chess champion Garry Kasparov in two chess matches. The first match was played in Philadelphia in 1996 and was won by Kasparov. The second was played in New York City in 1997 and won by Deep Blue. The 1997 match was the first defeat of a reigning world chess champion by a computer under tournament conditions.
也许你只是很幸运。IBM的超级电脑深蓝曾在两次象棋大赛中与美国世界象棋冠军盖瑞对决。第一场比赛在1996年的费城举办,那一次盖瑞获胜。第二场比赛1997年在纽约举办,深蓝获胜。1997年的比赛是在锦标赛的赛制下,在国际象棋领域占有支配地位的盖瑞第一次败给一台计算机。
Let’s go through the words we learned today.First up was artificial intelligence or AI – the ability of machines to copy human intelligent behaviour.
现在我们浏览一遍今天学到的单词。第一个是人工智能AI,是指机器复制人类智能行为的能力。
There are AI programs that can write poetry.
有一些人工智能程序可以写诗。
Do you have any examples you can recite?
你可以背诵出几个例子吗?
Afraid I don’t! Number two – an algorithm is a set of steps a computer follows in order to solve a problem. For example, Google changes its search algorithm hundreds of times every year.
恐怕不能。第二个单词是算法,是指计算机按照一套程序来解决问题。例如,谷歌每年都会改变成千上万次其搜索算法。
The adjective is algorithmic – for example, Google has made many algorithmic changes.
形容词形式是algorithmic,例如谷歌做了很多次算法的改变。
Number three – if something has limitations – there’s a limit on what it can do or how good it can be. Our show has certain limitations – for example, it’s only six minutes long!
第三个单词,如果某物有局限性,是指某物在能做什么和擅长做什么方面有限制。我们的节目也有局限,例如,它只有六分钟长。
That’s right – there’s only time to present six vocabulary items. Short but sweet!
没错。时间只够提供六个单词。单词很短,但很贴心。
And very intelligent, too. OK, the next item is take something for granted – which is when we don’t realise how important something is.
也很有智慧。好的,下一个单词是将某事视为理所当然,是指我们不觉得某事有什么重要的。
We take our smart phones for granted these days – but before 1995 hardly anyone owned one.
我们如今将智能手机视为理所当然的东西,但1995年前,很少有人有手机。
Number five – to implement – means to perform a task, or take action.
第五个单词是实施、执行,是指完成一项任务或行动。
Neil implemented some changes to the show.
尼尔给这个节目做出了一些改变。
The final item is cutting edge – new and advanced – This software is cutting edge.
最后一个单词是前沿的,即最新的、先进的。这款软件很先进。
The software uses cutting edge technology.
这款软件使用了前沿科技。
OK – that’s all we have time for on today’s cutting edge show. But please check out our Instagram, Twitter, Facebook and YouTube pages.
今天我们的前沿节目就到这里。记得查看我们的 Instagram, Twitter, Facebook 和YouTube主页。
Bye-bye!
再见!

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Question:
What was the name of the computer which famously beat world chess champion Garry Kasparov using algorithms in 1997?
A  Hal
B  Alpha 60
C  Deep Blue
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