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Taking risks 2018-06-04190654

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Hello, and welcome to 6 Minute English, I’m Neil and joining me today is Rob.
大家好,欢迎来到六分钟英语。我是尼尔,今天和我搭档的是罗伯。
Hello.
大家好。
So Rob, what’s the most dangerous thing you’ve ever chosen to do?
所以罗伯,你曾经选择做过最危险的事情是什么?
Mmm. Tricky question. I’ve done many risky things, but probably the most risky thing is bungee jumping in New Zealand.
额。刁钻的问题。我做过一些危险的事情,但是或许最冒险的事情是在新西兰蹦极。
Oh, wow, bungee jumping. You’d never catch me doing that. Did you enjoy it?
啊,哇,蹦极。你永远不会看到我蹦极。玩得开心吗?
Not really, no. I won’t do it again!
算不上,不开心。我不会再蹦极了!
OK, well today our topic is risk and how different people react to different levels of risk in different ways. For example, would you be happy to be in a driverless car?
好的,今天我们的主题是冒险以及不同人面对不同层次的冒险表现如何。例如,你会乐意坐在无人驾驶汽车里吗?
Absolutely not! No, I don’t trust anybody’s driving, even a computer. So no, I wouldn’t go in a driverless car.
绝对不乐意!不,我不相信任何人的驾驶技术,甚至是计算机控制。所以不乐意,我不会坐进无人驾驶汽车里。
OK, I won’t offer you a lift! Driverless cars are the topic of today’s quiz. The question is: When was the first driverless car demonstrated on a public road? Was it: a) 1970s b) 1950s or c) 1920s ?
好的,我不会捎你一程的。无人驾驶汽车是今天测试的主题。问题是:第一辆无人驾驶汽车是什么时候上公路的?是a) 20世纪70年代 b) 20世纪50年代 还是 c) 20世纪20年代 ?
Well, I think they are quite modern, so I’m going to say 1970s.
好吧,我觉得它们相当现代,所以我说是20世纪70年代。
OK, well. We’ll find out if you’re right at the end of the programme. Joe Kable is an associate professor of Psychology at the University of Pennsylvania. In a recent BBC science programme, All in the Mind, he talked about the psychology of risk and whether there was anything physically in our brains that could predict how much risk we are prepared to accept. Here he is, first talking about a number of different ways people see risk. How many different types does he describe?
好的,我们将在节目最后揭晓你是否回答正确。乔•凯布尔是宾夕法尼亚大学心理学副教授。在最近的BBC科学节目All in the mind中,他谈到了风险心理学以及我们大脑内是否有能够推断出我们能够接受多大风险的东西。在这里他首先谈到人们看待风险有许多方式。他描述了几种类型呢?
Some people are quite risk-averse and really don’t want to take any decisions where there’s risk involved at all.Whereas others are fairly risk-tolerant and in some cases even risk-seeking, so they seek out decisions that have an aspect of risk to them.
一些人是完全规避风险的人,而且在有风险的领域真的不想做任何决策。然而另一些人是相当能够承担风险的人,在一些情况下甚至寻求冒险,所以他们做出的决策对他们来说有风险。
How many different types of people did he mention when it comes to attitudes to risk?
当谈到应对风险的态度时他提到了几种类型的人?
Well, there were three. The first group was those who are risk-averse.If you are averse to something, you are against it, you don’t like it. So risk-averse people don’t like to take risks.
好吧,有三种。第一种是规避风险的人。如果你规避某事,就是反对它,不喜欢它。所以规避风险的人不喜欢冒险。
The second group are those who are risk-tolerant.If you are tolerant of something, you accept it, you don’t mind it, it’s not a problem for you. So someone who is risk-tolerant is not worried by an element of risk in what they choose to do.
第二种人是能承担风险的人。如果你对某事是容忍的态度,就是能够接受它,不介意它,对你来说它不是问题。所以能承担风险的人不担心他们选择去做的事情中的风险因素。
The third group he mentioned are those who are risk-seeking. If you seek something, you actively look for it, you try to find it. So risk seekers are those who enjoy risk and want to take risks in their life.
他提到的第三种是那些寻求风险的人。如果你寻求某事,你会积极找寻,尽力发现。所以寻求风险的人是那些享受冒险以及想要在生活中冒险的人。
Associate professor Kable carried out research on risk-taking and discovered that there were differences in brain structure and the way parts of the brain worked together between those who are risk-averse and those who are risk-tolerant or risk seekers.
副教授凯布尔开展了一项关于冒险的调查,发现规避风险的人和能承担风险的人或者是寻求风险的人之间大脑结构不同,大脑各部分共同作用的方式不同。
So it seems as if this is something that could be measured. You could put someone in a brain scanner and tell if they like risk or not. I wonder how useful that would be though.Is there any practical application for this knowledge?
所以似乎这是可以衡量的事物。你可以把某人放在头部扫描仪中,说出他们是否喜欢冒险。然而我猜想那会多有用。这种认识有任何切实应用吗?
Good question and one that was put to Kable. What area does he say this could be applied to?
问得好,而且这个问题要问凯布尔。他说可以应用到哪个领域?
Definitely something that I can see coming out of this is using these associations to help develop better assessments of who’s likely to take risks versus not. This is exactly the thing that financial advisors want to assess when you come to them and say ’I want to put my money away for retirement’. Exactly the aspect of your personality that they want to know is what’s your tolerance for taking risk.
我能明确从中看出,可以用这些联系来更好地评估谁更有可能冒险,谁更不可能冒险。当你找到财务顾问说自己想要为退休之后的生活存钱时,这确实是他们想要评估的东西。事实上,他们想了解你个性方面的内容是你对于风险的容忍度。
In which area does he say knowledge of someone’s attitude to risk might be useful?
他说人们对风险的态度在哪个领域或许有用?
Financial planning. He says that financial advisors, who are people that give advice on what to do with our money, would find this information very useful. It would help them to assess what to do with your money, which means it would help them to decide, to make an intelligent decision about your money in certain situations.
经济决策。他说为人们提供财产安置建议的财务顾问,会发现这条信息非常有用。它会帮助你评估如何安置你的财产,那是指它会帮助财务顾问做决策,在特定情形下对你的财产做出明智决策。
For example if you are planning for your retirement. Retirement is the time when are able to or you have to stop working.
例如你打算为你的退休做准备。退休是你能够或者不得不停止工作的时光。
He also used an interesting expression there, to put your money away, which means ’save your money’, ’put it somewhere where you can’t spend it and where it can grow’. You know I think my financial planner could just ask me about how I feel about risk rather than giving me a brain scan.I heard brain scans can be risky!
他同样使用了一个有趣的表达方式,把你的钱放在一边,指的是存钱,把它放在你不能花费,可以增值的地方。你知道,我觉得我的财务顾问可以只询问我对于风险的态度,而不是给我做头部扫描。我听说头部扫描有风险。
Mmm, not sure that’s true. But anyway, what is true is the answer to this week’s quiz question. I asked you when the first driverless car was demonstrated on a public road. The options were a) the 1970s, b) the1950s and c) the 1920s. What did you say, Rob?
额,不确定那是否正确。但是不管怎么说,今天没错误的是测试问题的答案。我问你第一辆无人驾驶汽车什么时候上公路的。选项是a)20世纪70年代,b) 20世纪50年代 以及 c) 20世纪20年代。你说是什么,罗伯?
I said the 1970s.
我说是20世纪70年代。
And you were wrong, I’m afraid. Apparently it was the 1920s, so a long time ago. Well done if you got that right. Now before we drive off into the sunset, let’s recap today’s vocabulary.
恐怕你错了。很显然是在20世纪20年代,那么久以前。如果你答对了那就太棒了。现在在傍晚我们离开之前,让我们回顾一下今天的单词。
Yes, right, first we had three words describing different attitudes to risk. There was risk-averse, for people who don’t like risk.
是的,好的,首先我们听到的是描述对待风险不同态度的三个词。有规避风险的人,是指不喜欢冒险的人。
People who don’t mind risk are risk-tolerant.
不介意风险的人是能够承担风险的人。
And people who like risk and want risk are risk seekers.
而且喜欢冒险和想要冒险的人是寻求风险的人。
Next we had the verb ’to assess’. This means ’to make a judgement or a decision based on information’.
接下来我们学了动词“评估”。这指的是根据信息做出判断或者决定。
A phrase meaning ’to save money’ is ’to put money away’.
意思是“存钱”的一个词组是"to put money away"。
And finally we had ’retirement’. That time of life when you are too old to work anymore or you have enough money that you don’t need to work anymore. Are you looking forward to your retirement, Rob?
最后我们学到了“退休”。那是你太老以至于不能工作或者是你有足够的钱不需要再工作的时光。你期待退休吗,罗伯?
Oh, cheeky. I’m neither old enough nor rich enough to even think about that, Neil.
噢,太丢脸了。我既不太老,又不足够有钱去考虑那个,尼尔。
Same here. Well, that’s all from us today.And you don’t have to be a risk seeker to find us on Facebook, Twitter, Instagram and YouTube, and of course on our website bbclearningenglish.com! Thank you for joining us and goodbye.
我也是。好的,以上是我们今天所有的内容。而且在Facebook,Twitter,Instagram和YouTube上找到我们的内容不必冒险,当然还有我们的网站bbclearningenglish.com!感谢你的参与,再见。
Byebye!
拜拜!

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Question:
When was the first driverless car demonstrated on a public road? Was it:
A  1970s
B  1950s
C  1920s
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