科技能解决所有问题吗? 分享到:
Is technology always the solution? 2018-07-24238131

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Hello and welcome to 6 Minute English. I’m Catherine.
大家好,欢迎来到六分钟英语。我是凯瑟琳。
And hello, I’m Rob.
大家好,我是罗伯。
Today we have another technology topic. 
今天我们有另一个科技话题。
Oh good! I love technology. It makes things easier, it’s fast and means I can have gadgets.
噢,很好!我爱科技。它让事物变得简单,发展迅速,并且那意味着我有许多计算机小工具。
Do you think that technology can actually do things better than humans? 
你认为科技真的能做得比人还好吗?
For some things, yes. I think cars that drive themselves will be safer than humans. But that will take away some of the pleasure of driving. So I guess it depends on what you mean by better. 
对一些事情来说,是的。我觉得自动汽车比人类驾驶更安全。但是那会带走一些驾驶的乐趣。所以我猜它取决于你指的是什么会更好。
Good point, Rob. And that actually ties in very closely with today’s topic, which is technochauvinism.
说得好,罗伯。那实际上和今天的主题——科技至上主义非常接近。
What’s that?
那是什么?
We’ll find out shortly, Rob, but before we do, today’s quiz question. Artificial Intelligence, or A.I., is an area of computer science that develops the ability of computers to learn to do things like solve problems or drive cars without crashing. But in what decade was the term ’Artificial Intelligence’ coined? Was it: a) the 1940s, b) the 1950s or c) the 1960s?
我们很快将会找出答案,罗伯,但是在那之前是今天的测试问题。人工智能或者A.I.是电脑科学的一个领域,它开发计算机学做像解决问题或者无事故驾驶汽车这些事情的能力。但是在哪个年代人工智能产生?是a) 20世纪40年代, b) 20世纪50年代 还是 c) 20世纪60年代?
I think it’s quite a new expression so I’ll go for c) the 1960s.
我认为那是非常新颖的一种表达,所以我选c) 20世纪60年代。
Good luck with that, Rob, and we’ll give you the answer later in the programme. Now, let’s get back to our topic of technochauvinism.
祝你好运,罗伯,我们稍后将在节目中告诉你答案。现在让我们回到我们的主题——科技至上主义。
I know what a chauvinist is. It’s someone who thinks that their country or race or sex is better than others. But how does this relate to technology? 
我知道什么是沙文主义者。它指的是认为自己的国家或者是种族或者是性别比别人好。但是这是如何和科技联系到一起的。
We’re about to find out. Meredith Broussard is Professor of Journalism at New York University and she’s written a book called Artificial Unintelligence. She appeared on the BBC Radio 4 programme More or Less to talk about it. Listen carefully and find out her definition of technochauvinism.
我们就要找出答案了。梅雷迪恩·布鲁萨德是纽约大学新闻学教授,并且她写了一本叫做《人工非智能》的书。她做客BBC广播4频道的More or Less节目来谈人工智能。仔细听并找出她对科技至上主义的定义。
Technochauvinism is the idea that technology is always the highest and best solution. So somehow over the past couple of decades we got into the habit of thinking that doing something with a computer is always the best and most objective way to do something. And that’s simply not true. Computers are not objective.they are proxies for the people who make them. 
科技至上主义是认为科技一直是最先进,最好的解决之法的一种观念。所以在过去几十年里我们陷入了认为计算机做事一直是最好的,最客观的做事方式的思维习惯。那根本是不对的。计算机不是客观的。它们是计算机创造者的代理服务器。
What is Meredith Broussard’s definition of technochauvinism? 
梅雷迪恩·布鲁萨德对科技至上主义的定义是什么?
It’s this idea that using technology is better than not using technology. 
它是认为使用科技比不使用要好的观念。
She says that we have this idea that a computer is objective. Something that is objective is neutral, it doesn’t have an opinion, it’s fair and it’s unbiased.So it’s the opposite of being a chauvinist. But Meredith Broussard says this is not true. 
她说我们认为计算机是客观的。某事客观就是中立,没有主观观点,公平且没有偏见。所以它是沙文主义者的反义词。但是梅雷迪恩·布鲁萨德说这是不对的。
She argues that computers are not objective. They are proxies for the people that make them. You might know the word proxy when you are using your computer in one country and want to look at something that is only available in a different country. You can use a piece of software called a proxy to do that. 
她争辩说计算机不是客观的。它们是计算机制造者的代理服务器。当你在一个国家使用电脑并想要查找只在别国能找到的某种事物时,你或许会知道代理服务器这个词。你可以用一个叫做代理服务器的软件来做那件事。
But a proxy is also a person or a thing that carries out your wishes and your instructions for you. So computers are only as smart or as objective as the people that programme them. Computers are proxies for their programmers. Broussard says that believing too much in Artificial Intelligence can make the world worse. Let’s hear a bit more. This time find out what serious problems in society does she think may be reflected in AI? 
但是"proxy"也是为你执行想法和指令的人或者事。所以电脑计算机只是和编程它们的人一样聪明而已。电脑是编程者的代理服务器。布鲁萨德说对人工智能信任太多会令世界更糟糕。让我们多听一些。这次要找出她认为人工智能会对社会造成什么严重问题?
It’s a nuanced problem. What we have is data on the world as it is. And we have serious problems with racism, sexism, classism, ageism, in the world right now. So there is no such thing as perfect data. We also have a problem inside the tech world where the creators of algorithms do not have sufficient awareness of social issues such that they can make good technology that gets us closer to a world as it should be. 
它是一个微妙的问题。事实上我们有的是全球数据。而且我们现在还有和种族歧视,性别歧视,阶级歧视,对老年人的歧视相关的问题。所以没有完美数据这回事。在科技的世界里我们同样有问题,运算法则的制造者对于社会问题没有足够的认识。他们本可以用好的科技让我们离世界更近。
She said that society has problems with racism, sexism, classism and ageism.
她说社会有种族歧视,性别歧视,阶级歧视和对老年人歧视的问题。
And she says it’s a nuanced problem. A nuanced problem is not simple, but it does have small and important areas, which may be hard to spot, but they need to be considered. 
而且她说那是一个微妙的问题。一个微妙的问题并不简单,但是它涉及微小但重要的领域,那很难扑捉到,但却需要考虑到它们。
And she also talked about algorithms used to program these technological systems. An algorithm is a set of instructions that computers use to perform their tasks. Essentially it’s the rules that they use to come up with their answers.And Broussard believes that technology will reflect the views of those who create the algorithms. 
而且她同样谈到用来编程这些技术体系的运算法则。运算法则是计算机执行任务的一系列指令。从本质上来说,它是找出解决方案的准则。而且布鲁萨德认为将会反映运算法则构建者的想法。
Next time you’re using a piece of software or your favourite app, you might find yourself wondering if it’s a useful tool or does it contain these little nuances that reflect the views of the developer.
下次你使用一款软件或者你最爱的应用时,你或许会发现自己在猜想它是否是一款有用的工具或者是它是否包含影响开发者想法的微妙之处。
Right, Catherine. How about the answer to this week’s question then? 
好吧,凯瑟琳。接下来谈谈这周问题的答案怎么样?
I asked in which decade was the term ’Artificial Intelligence’ coined. Was it the 40s, the 50s or the 60s? 
我问什么年代人工智能产生。是40年代,50年代还是60年代?
And I said the 60s.
我说是60年代。
But it was actually the 1950s. Never mind, Rob. Let’s review today’s vocabulary. 
但是实际上是20世纪50年代。别介意,罗伯。让我们回顾一下今天的单词。
Well, we had a chauvinist. That’s someone who believes their country, race or sex is better than any others. 
好的,我们学到了沙文主义者。那是相信自己的国家,种族或者性别比别人要好的某些人。
And this gives us technochauvinism, the belief that a technological solution is always a better solution to a problem. 
这就到了“科技至上主义”这个词,认为科技解决之法一直比其他解决之法要好的观点。
Next, someone or something that is objective is neutral, fair and balanced.
接下来,某人或者某事是客观的就是说它是中立的,公平的,不偏不倚的。
A proxy is a piece of software but also someone who does something for you, on your behalf. A nuanced problem is a subtle one.It’s not a simple case of right or wrong. In a nuanced problem, there are small but important things that you need to consider.
代理服务器是一个软件,但同样也是代表你,为你做某事的某人。微妙的问题是一个微小的问题。它不是简单的正确与否。在微妙的问题中有细小但重要的事情需要你考虑。
And an algorithm is a set of software instructions for a computer system. 
运算法则是电脑系统的一套软件指令。
Well, that’s all we have time for today. Goodbye for now. 
好的,以上就是今天的所有内容。再见了。
Bye bye!
拜拜!

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Question:
But in what decade was the term 'Artificial Intelligence' coined? Was it:
A   1940s
B   1950s
C   1960s
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