抑制人们对塑料的过度依赖 分享到:
Curbing our plastic addiction 2018-10-13186160

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Hello, and welcome to 6 Minute English. I’m Neil.
大家好,欢迎来到六分钟英语。我是尼尔。
And hello, I’m Rob.
大家好,我是罗伯。
Today we’re talking about plastic.
今天我们要谈论是塑料。
Yes, it’s our addiction to plastic that is of concern. Because this material doesn’t decay very quickly. So once we’ve used it, it hangs around for a very long time.
是的,我们对塑料的过度依赖令人担忧。因为这种材料不是很快腐烂。所以一旦被我们使用,它会滞留很长一段时间。
It is a problem. And ’decay’, by the way, describes the natural process of something being destroyed or breaking down into small particles. We hear so much about the consequences of having too much waste plastic around, don’t we?
那是个问题。而且顺便说一下,“腐烂”描述的是某事物被毁坏或者分解成小颗粒的自然过程。我们听说如此多关于有太多塑料垃圾无处不在所造成的后果,不是吗?
Indeed. Not only does it cause a mess, wildlife, particularly marine animals, are at risk when they become entangled in plastic waste, or ingest it. It’s an issue that needs tackling or dealing with. And that’s what we’ll be discussing today and finding out what could be done to solve this plastic crisis.
确实是。它不仅仅是会造成脏乱,当野生动物,特别是海洋生物被塑料垃圾包围或者吃掉塑料垃圾时,它们会处于危险之中。那是需要解决或者处理的事情。而且那是我们今天将要讨论的内容,并且还要找出可以做些什么来解决这个塑料危机。
OK, first, let’s challenge you to answer a question about plastic, Rob. The first synthetic plastic – that’s plastic made entirely from man-made materials - was created over 100 years ago. Do you know what its brand name was? Was it… a) Bakelite, b) Lucite or c) Formica?
好的,但是首先让我们考验你回答一个关于塑料的问题,罗伯。第一种合成塑料,即完全由人造材料制成的塑料,是在100多年前被制造出来的。你知道它的商标名称是什么吗?是a) 酚醛树脂, b) 透明合成树脂 还是 c) 胶木?
I’m no expert, so I’ll say c) Formica.
我不是专家,所以我会说是c) 胶木。
Well, we’ll reveal the answer at the end of the programme. Now let’s talk more about plastic. This man-made substance is everywhere - from clothing to crisp packets, and bottles to buckets.
好的,我们将在节目最后揭晓答案。现在让我们谈论更多关于塑料的内容。这种人造物质无处不在,从服装到薯片包装袋,从塑料瓶到塑料桶。
But the problem is that most of it isn’t biodegradable. That’s a word that describes something that can decay naturally without harming anything. Each year, 400 million tonnes of plastic is produced and 40% of that is single-use. So why don’t we stop using it?
但是问题是大多数塑料不是可生物降解的。那个单词描述的是某物会自然腐烂而不伤害任何东西。每年有4亿吨塑料被生产出来,其中有40%是一次性的。所以我们为什么不停止使用塑料呢?
It’s not that easy, Rob, and it’s something Lucy Siegle, a BBC reporter and author, has been talking about. She was speaking in a discussion on the Costing the Earth programme on BBC Radio 4, and explained the issue we have with quitting plastic but also how our attitude is changing…
并没有那么简单,罗伯,而且那正是BBC记者及作家露西•司格尔一直谈到的。她在BBC广播4频道的Costing the Earth节目中讨论了这个话题,并对我们停止使用塑料会产生的问题以及我们的态度是如何改变进行了说明。
We have this weird psychological attachment to this material, that’s been around and it’s like a push and pull. At one time, we’re so horrified by what we’re seeing – the whales dying, the oceans vomiting plastic beaming in from all over the world. And at the same time we’re being told we can’t live without it. So that creates a psychological dissonance, which I think is the barrier to behavioural change. But I’m finding now awareness has peaked and it’s going over into activism.
我们对塑料这种材料有种怪异的心理依赖,那种情况一直都有,它就像是一种推拉的感觉。我们一度对自己所看到的感到如此惊骇——鲸鱼死亡,来自世界各处的塑料垃圾从海里冒出来,反射出光来。而且与此同时,我们被告知没有塑料我们无法生活。所以那就产生一种心理上的冲突,我认为那是转变行为的障碍。但是现在我发现人们对塑料的警觉达到顶峰,而且已经转变为行动主义。
She mentioned the word ’psychological’, that’s something that affects or involves our mind. So here, psychological attachment means that in our mind we feel we have to use plastic, we’re addicted.
她提到“心理上的”这个词,那是影响我们思想的某事物。所以在这里,心理依赖指的是在我们心目中我们觉得自己不得不使用塑料,我们过度依赖塑料。
But we also see the negative impact of plastic, like whales dying. And in our mind we’re also thinking we must stop! This has created what Lucy says is a ’psychological dissonance’.Dissonance’ means a disagreement between two opposing ideas. So we’re having an argument in our head about the right thing to do. This is the ’push and pull’ of thoughts she referred to.
但是我们同样看到塑料的负面影响,就像鲸鱼死亡。而且在我们心目中我们同样觉得我们必须停止使用塑料!这就产生了露西所说的“心理上的冲突”。“冲突”指的是两个对立观点间的分歧。所以对于要做的对的事情我们会在大脑中争吵一番。这就是她所指的思想上的推拉。
And this dissonance has been the barrier to us trying to solve the plastic issue. But now we’re starting to do something about it. We’re taking action to reduce our plastic waste. We’re turning to activism. That’s taking action to change something. It could be social or political change, or a change in our behaviour or attitude.
而且这种冲突一直是我们设法解决塑料问题的障碍。但是现在我们开始做一些相关的事情。我们正采取行动来减少塑料垃圾。我们正在转变为行动主义。那是说做出行动来改变某事。它可能是社会或者政治改变,又或者是我们行为或态度上的改变。
Of course there has been a big push, that means people have been strongly encouraged to recycle.
当然,那里有巨大推动力,那指的是人们被极力鼓励来循坏利用塑料。
Maybe in an ideal world the best thing to do is go plastic-free. But that isn’t easy, is it?
或许在理想世界,要做的最好的事情就是无塑料。但是那并不容易,不是吗?
No, it isn’t, and it’s something Lucy Siegle spoke about. Getting rid of plastic in our lives is a gradual process. But where does she think we can make the biggest difference?
不,它并不容易,而且那是露西•司格尔谈到的。在我们生活中摆脱塑料是一个循序渐进的过程。但是她认为我们可以在哪方面做出最大改变?
I really think that to concentrate on stopping the flow of plastics into your life is easier and more effective in the long term, than trying to go plastic-free from the outset. We are in the UK, a supermarket culture, so a lot of the tips and tricks to decreasing the flow of plastic are getting round supermarket culture.
我真的觉得长期看来,集中精力在不让塑料进入我们的生活比设法从源头上达到无塑料要更简单,更高效。我们在英国,一个超市文化的国家,所以许多减少塑料的诀窍和技巧在超市文化中传播开来。
She says we have a supermarket culture in the UK. Culture’ here describes a way of life or a way that we generally behave. And in terms of food shopping, we tend to do that in supermarkets.
她说在英国我们有超市文化。“文化”在这里指的是一种生活方式或者是我们的一种通常举动。而且就餐饮购物而言,我们倾向于在超市里使用塑料。
So, for example, customers can make a big difference by putting pressure on supermarkets to use less plastic packaging. It does seem that the future of plastic is in our hands. We need to be more careful about how and when we use it. And use our collective power to force change if it’s needed.
所以,例如,顾客可以通过向超市施压,使用更少的塑料包装来造成巨大改变。塑料的未来看起来确实像在我们手中。对于如何以及何处使用塑料我们需要更加谨慎。而且如果有需要的话,利用集体的力量来强制改变。
But there’s no doubt plastic is useful for many things. So it will be a long time before it disappears altogether.
但是毫无疑问塑料对一些事物来说是有用的。所以在塑料完全消失之前那将会是很长一段时间。
And earlier I asked you what was the name of the first synthetic plastic invented over a 100 years ago. Was it… a) Bakelite,b) Lucite or c) Formica?
早些时候我问你发明于100多年前的第一种合成塑料的名字是什么。是a) 酚醛树脂, b) 透明合成树脂 还是 c) 胶木?
And I said c) Formica. Was I right?
我说是c) 胶木 。对吗?
Formica is a type of hard plastic used for covering tables and working areas in kitchens. But it’s not the oldest type. That was Bakelite.
胶木是一种用来覆盖桌面以及厨房工作区域的硬质塑料。但是它不是最早的那种。最早的是酚醛树脂。
I may have got that wrong, but hopefully I’ll have more success recapping some of today’s vocabulary. Starting with ’decay’, which describes the natural process of something being destroyed or breaking down into small particles, which plastic takes a long time to do.
我或许答错了,但是还好回顾今天的一些词汇我能成功点。从“decay”开始,那形容的是某事物被毁坏或者分解成小颗粒,塑料要花很长一段时间才能完成的事情。
Next we had ’biodegradable’. That’s a word to describe something that can decay naturally without harming anything.
接下来是“可生物降解的”。那个单词形容的是某事物能够腐烂而不伤害任何东西。
Then we had ’psychological’, that’s something that affects or involves your mind.
然后我们学了“心理学的”,那是影响人们思想的事物。
Next up, we had ’dissonance’, which describes a disagreement between two opposing ideas.
接下来我们学了“冲突”,那指的是两个对立观点间的分歧。
And then we mentioned ’activism’, that’s taking action to change something. We also mentioned the phrase ’a big push’ which means people are strongly encouraged or persuaded to do something, usually by force.
然后我们提到了“行动主义”,那是说采取行动来改变某些事。我们还提到了短语“巨大推动力”,指的是人们被极力鼓励或者说服做某事,通常是通过强制。
And finally we had culture. In our context of supermarket culture, it describes a way of life or a way that we generally behave.
最后我们提到了文化。在我们超市文化背景下,它形容的是一种生活方式,或者说是我们一种通常举动。
Thanks, Neil. Now, remember you can find more learning English programmes and materials on our website at bbclearningenglish.com. That’s it for now but please join us next time for 6 Minute English. Goodbye.
谢谢你,尼尔。记得你可以在我们的网站bbclearningenglish.com找到更多英语学习节目和材料。节目就到这里了,但是记得下次再加入我们六分钟英语啊。再见。
Goodbye.
再见。

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Question:
The first synthetic plastic – that's plastic made entirely from man-made materials - was created over 100 years ago. Do you know what its brand name was? Was it…
A  Bakelite
B  Lucite
C  Formica
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