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Objectification 2018-11-0497978

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Hello and welcome to 6 Minute English, I’m Neil.
大家好,欢迎来到六分钟英语,我是尼尔。
And I’m Sam.
我是萨姆。
And in this programme we’re looking at the word - objectification.
而且在这个节目里我们会看一下“物化”这个词。
Objectification is when we reduce people to objects.
物化是说当我们把人当做物体看待时。
An example of this is advertising in the media and in particular the way women have been shown. Impossibly attractive and implausibly perfect models in adverts and in movies and on TV you are much more likely to see naked or half-naked women than men.
物化的一个例子是媒体广告方面,特别是女性的表现方式。在广告,电影以及电视里特别引人注目以及令人难以置信的完美模特中,你看到全裸或半裸的女性比看到全裸或半裸的男性更有可能。
Objectification can lead to issues in society such as inequality and discrimination. Objectification of women is a problem, but what about the objectification of men?
物化可以导致社会中的种种事宜,像是不平等和歧视。物化女性是一个问题,但是物化男性呢?
Before we hear more, it’s time for a question. Today’s question is: on British TV in which decade was a completely naked man first seen? Was it… a) the 1940s b) the 1950s or c) the 1960s?What do you think, Sam?
在我们听到更多内容之前,是时候回答问题了。今天的问题是:哪个年代,全裸的男性在英国电视中被看到?是a) 20世纪40年代 b) 20世纪50年代 还是 c) 20世纪60年代?你觉得呢,萨姆?
I’m going for the 60s.
我说是60年代。
I’ll give the answer later in the programme. Now Sam, do you know the TV programme Love Island?
稍后在节目中我们将给出答案。萨姆,你知道《爱之岛》这个电视节目吗?
Yes, it’s a kind of a dating show. And all the contestants - men and women - spend a lot of time in their swimming costumes and they’ve all got perfect bodies.
知道,它是一类相亲节目。而且所有的男女参赛者花费大量时间在他们的泳衣上面,他们都有着完美身材。
Yes, that’s right. It’s a programme that seems to objectify men and women equally. But is that a bad thing? Dr Peter Lucas is Senior Lecturer in Philosophy at the University of Central Lancashire. He spoke on this topic on the BBC’s Woman’s Hour programme. What does he suggest might be the advantage of featuring men with ’perfect’ bodies?
是的,是那样的。这个节目看起来像是平等物化男性和物化女性的节目。但是那是一件坏事吗?皮特•卢卡斯博士是中兰开夏大学哲学系高级讲师。他在BBC《女性时间》节目里谈到了这个话题。他表示什么或许是完美身材特征男性的优势?
If you look at the impact of TV series like Love Island for instance, the producers of that programme present that as, have described that as being aspirational for their audience. It’s presenting role models, it’s presenting models that people are supposed to, aspire to. Now many women, thinking about the male bodies that are on display, they might think well. If it means that more men get off to the gym, look after themselves physically, surely that’s a good thing.
如果你看一下电视系列节目造成的影响,例如《爱之岛》,那个节目的制片人所呈现出来的被形容为其观众所梦寐以求的。它呈现出榜样,呈现出人们所期望,所渴求成为的模范。现在许多女性,她们或许认为将男性身材展示出来挺好的。如果那意味着更多男性去健身房,关心自己的身体,无疑那会是一件好事。
So what might be an advantage of these highly fit athletic bodies on show?
所以节目中这些拥有非常健壮身材的人或许有什么优势呢?
Dr Lucas suggests that seeing those bodies might encourage men to go to the gym and work hard to improve their fitness and health,and that could be a good thing.
卢卡斯博士说看那种身材或许能够鼓励男性去健身房并努力工作提高自己的健康水平,那是一件好事。
Yes, the people in the programme are described as role models. A role model is someone whose behaviour is seen as a good example for others to copy.
是的,节目里的人被形容为榜样。榜样是形容某个人,其行为举止被视为他人效仿的好例子。
I’m not sure the behaviour of the people in Love Island makes them good role models. But perhaps from the point of view of their physical fitness they give us something to aspire to. If you aspire to something, it’s something you can aim for, something you want to achieve. Dr Lucas also used a related word - aspirational. The TV series Love Island was described as being aspirational. It shows a lifestyle that people would like to have, something they might aim to achieve.
我不确定《爱之岛》里面的人的行为会使他们成为好的榜样。但是或许从他们身体健康角度来看,他们给了我们所渴求的东西。如果你渴求某物,它就是你力争的东西,你想要获得的东西。卢卡斯博士同样用到了相关词汇——梦寐以求的。电视系列节目《爱之岛》被形容为梦寐以求的。它表明了人们想要拥有的一种生活方式,他们或许要实现的目标。
But there are also dangers to encouraging people to get to the gym. Here’s Dr Lucas again.
但是鼓励人们去健身房同样有危险。这是卢卡斯博士再次谈到的。
But also it’s likely to generate higher levels of narcissism, self-consciousness, becoming obsessive about your appearance. It’s not particularly an attractive feature either in men or in women. And I suspect that’s impacting on men’s behaviour in a way which is detrimental in the same sort of way that’s been detrimental for women really, for decades.
但是同样的,它有可能产生更高层次的自恋,忸怩,变得过分追求自己的外表。无论是在男性身上还是女性身上它并不是一种特别有吸引力的特征。而且我猜测它在一定程度上对男性行为造成影响,那对男性是有害的,同样的方式对女性也是真的有害的,数十年来如此。
He talks about behaviour that is detrimental, this means behaviour that has a negative impact. What behaviours does he say are detrimental?
他谈到了有害的行为,这指的是有消极影响的行为。他说什么行为是有害的?
If people become obsessed by their appearance it could lead to narcissism. This is a condition where you spend so much time focussing on yourself, your own looks, your own body that you stop caring about anyone else.
如果你人们变得沉迷于自己的外表,那会导致自恋。这种情况下你会花费太多时间关注自身,自己的外表,自己的身材,你会不再关心其他人。
And because it’s very very hard to get that kind of body it can also lead to people being very self-conscious. They might become embarrassed about their bodies and lose confidence in themselves as a result. Right. It’s almost time to review this week’s vocabulary, but before that let’s have the answer to the quiz. In what decade was the first naked man seen on British TV? Was it… a) the 1940s b) the 1950s or c) the 1960s? What did you say, Sam?
而且因为获得那种身材非常非常困难,那会导致人们变得非常忸怩。因此他们或许会变得对自己的身材感到窘迫,对自己失去信心。好的。差不多是时候回顾这周的单词了,但是在那之前让我们揭晓测试问题的答案。哪个年代在英国电视上看到了首个裸露的男性?是a) 20世纪40年代 b) 20世纪50年代 还是 c) 20世纪60年代?你说是什么,萨姆?
I said c) the 60s.
我说是c) 60年代。
I’m afraid the revolution had come earlier than that. The correct answer is the 1950s. It was a 1957 documentary called Out of Step, part of which was filmed at a nudist colony. Now, time for our vocabulary.
恐怕那种思想方式的变革来得比那要早。正确答案是20世纪50年代。那是一个1957年的纪录片,叫做《失步》,部分画面拍摄于裸体主义者殖民地。现在是时候回顾单词了。
Our first word was ’objectification’. This is the noun for when we reduce a human being to an object. We don’t think of them as a real person anymore. The verb is ’to objectify’.
我们的第一个单词是“物化”。这个名词是说当我们把人当做物体看待时。我们不再认为他们是真实的人。动词形式是“to objectify”。
Someone whose behaviour is a good example that others want to copy is a role model.
某人的行为是他人想要效仿的好例子,那他就是榜样。
When it comes to presenting 6 Minute English, you are my role model, Neil.
当说到呈现六分钟英语时,你就是我的榜样,尼尔。
You’re too kind, and I aspire to your level of professionalism, Sam. To aspire to - to aim to be, to hope to achieve.
你太客气了,我渴求你的专业素质水平,萨姆。渴求——目的是要,希望达到。
That is related to the next word, aspirational. This adjective is used to describe the desire to improve parts of you life, for example, getting a better job or a better body. Aspirational TV programmes or adverts show lifestyles that people might want to be theirs.
那和下一个词相关,梦寐以求的。这个形容词被用来形容想要改善部分生活的渴望,例如,获得更好的工作或更好的身材。梦寐以求的电视节目或者广告展现出人们或许想要的生活方式。
Our next word is an adjective for something that is bad for you, something that has a negative effect. The adjective is ’detrimental’.
我们下一个单词是形容词,指的是对你有害的某物,有消极影响的某物。那个形容词是“有害的”。
We heard that aspiring to the perfect body can be detrimental, because it might lead to narcissism. Narcissism’ is the term for someone who is so obsessed with their own body and life that they don’t care about anyone else.
我们听说对完美身材的渴求会是有害的,因为它或许会导致自恋。“自恋”这个词是说某人如此沉迷于自己的身材和生活,以至于他们不关心其他人。
Achieving that perfect body is incredibly hard and impossible for most real people. And not achieving it can make people overly self-conscious, which in this situation means that they can lose confidence in themselves.
达到那种完美身材是相当困难的,而且对大多数人来说是不可能的。而且达不到那个目标会使人们过度忸怩,在这种情况下那指的是他们对自己失去信心。
That’s all we have time for today. Do join us next time and remember you can find us on the website bbclearningenglish.com. Bye bye.
以上就是我们今天所有的内容。下次一定要加入我们啊,而且要记得,你可以在我们的网站bbclearningenglish.com上找到我们。拜拜。
Bye!
拜!

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Question:
On British TV, in which decade was a completely naked man first seen? Was it…
A  the 1940s
B  the 1950s
C  the 1960s
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