母鸡能教给我们关于等级制度的什么东西 分享到:
What chickens can teach us about hierarchies 2018-11-20120434

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Hello and welcome to 6 Minute English, I’m Neil.
大家好,欢迎来到六分钟英语,我是尼尔。
And I’m Catherine.
我是凯瑟琳。
Catherine, what’s the connection between hierarchies, managers and chickens?
凯瑟琳,等级制度,管理人员和母鸡之间有什么联系?
Well, I don’t know, Neil, but I’m sure you’re going to tell me.
好吧,我不知道,尼尔,但是我确信你会告诉我。
First of all, could you explain for our listeners what a hierarchy is?
首先,你能给我们的听众解释一下什么是等级制度吗?
Of course! A hierarchy is a way of organising people. For example, in a company, where there are people working at different levels. You’ve got bosses, managers and workers. The workers do the work and the managers have meetings that stop the workers doing the work!
当然!等级制度是管理人员的一种方式。例如,在一个公司中人们以不同等级工作。有老板,管理人员和工人。工人做工,管理人员开会能让工人停止工作。
But where do the chickens come in? We’ll find out shortly, but first here is today’s question.And it is – surprise, surprise – about chickens. What is the record number of eggs laid by one chicken in a year? Is it: a) 253 b) 371 or c) 426? What do you think Catherine?
但是母鸡从哪掺和进来的?我们很快会揭晓,但是首先是今天的问题。而且它是关于母鸡,惊喜吧。一只鸡一年下蛋的记录数字是多少?是a) 253个 b) 371个 c) 426个?你觉得是什么,凯瑟琳?
Well, I think most chickens lay an egg once a day, so I think it’s 371.
好吧,我觉得大多数母鸡一天下一个蛋,所以我认为是371个。
Well, we will have an answer later in the programme. Now, for hierarchies and chickens. In the radio programme The Joy of 9 to 5, produced by somethin’ else for the BBC, entrepreneur Margaret Heffernan described an experiment. In this experiment, researchers compared the egg production of a group of average chickens to a group of super-chickens. That’s chickens with an above average egg production. Which was the most successful? Here’s Margaret Heffernan, and by the way, the noun for a group of chickens is a flock.
好的,稍后我们将会知晓答案。现在要说等级制度和母鸡。在某人为BBC所制作的The Joy of 9 to 5广播节目中,企业家玛格丽特•赫弗南描述了一项实验。在这个实验中,研究人员将一群普通母鸡的鸡蛋产量同一群特级母鸡的鸡蛋产量对比。那指的是鸡蛋产量超过普通鸡蛋产量的母鸡。哪个是最成功的?这里是玛格丽特•赫弗南谈到的,而且顺便提一下,一群母鸡的名词是鸡群。
He compares the two flocks over six generations. The average flock just gets better and better and better. Egg production increases dramatically. The super-flock of super-chickens, at the end of six generations, all but three are dead, because the other three have killed the rest. They’ve achieved their individual productivity by suppressing the productivity of the rest. And that’s what we do at work.
他对两个鸡群进行了六代比较。普通鸡群变得越来越好,越来越好,越来越好。鸡蛋产量剧增。特级母鸡群在第六代的最后,除了三只外其它都死了,因为那三只杀死了其它母鸡。它们通过抑制其它母鸡的产量达到个人产量。那是我们在工作中所做的。
Which flock was most successful?
哪个鸡群最成功?
Well, the super-flock actually killed each other, so it turned out that the average flock laid more eggs in total and was more successful.
好吧,特级鸡群事实上杀死了彼此,所以结果是普通鸡群下蛋总数最多,并且它们是更成功的。
Yes, but why was that?
好的,但那是为什么呢?
Well, the super-chickens must have seen their other flock members not as colleagues, but as competitors. Now to understand this, we have to start with the word ’productivity’. This noun refers to the amount of work that’s done. So, on an individual level, the super-chickens achieved productivity because they suppressed the productivity of their flock members. ’Suppressed’ here means they ‘stopped the other chickens from being productive‘ by killing them.
好吧,特级母鸡一定没把所在鸡群里其它的母鸡看做同伴,而是看做竞争者。现在为了理解这,我们不得不从单词“产量”开始。这个名词指的是完成的工作量。所以在个人层次上,特级母鸡达到了产量,因为它们抑制了所在鸡群里其它母鸡的产量。“Suppressed”在这里指的是它们通过杀死其它母鸡来阻止它们多产。
So, what do we learn from this experiment?
所以我们从这个实验里学到了什么?
Well, Margaret Heffernan suggests that we see this kind of behaviour in the human workplace. When everyone is equal, productivity is high. But as soon as there’s a hierarchy - as soon as there are managers - things can go wrong, because not all managers see their role as making life easier for the workers. They demonstrate their productivity as managers by interfering with the productivity of the workers.
好的,玛格丽特•赫弗南称我们在人类工作场所会见到这类行为。人人平等时,产量高。但是只要有等级制度,只要有管理人员,事情就会出错,因为不是所有管理人员都认为他们的作用是让其他工人谋生更容易。管理人员通过干涉工人产量来彰显出自己的产量。
But there are other experiments which show that chickens are productive in a hierarchy. How are those hierarchies different though? Here’s Margaret Heffernan again.
但是有其它实验表明有等级制度的母鸡是多产的。然而那些等级制度有何不同?这是玛格丽特•赫弗南再次谈到的。
So chickens have an inbuilt or, if you like, an inherited hierarchy - that’s where we get the term ’pecking order’ from. But it’s one that they create among themselves, rather than one that’s imposed upon them.
所以母鸡有一种内在的,或者你喜欢的话,叫做一种遗传性等级制度,我们从中获得“社会等级”这个术语。但那是它们在它们之间创造出来的一种等级制度,而不是强加到它们身上的一种等级制度。
So, which hierarchy works, at least for chickens?
所以至少对母鸡来说,哪种等级制度起作用?
Well, the best hierarchy is one that isn’t imposed. That means a good hierarchy isn’t forced on the chickens. They do well when they create the hierarchy themselves, naturally. They work out the pecking order themselves.
好的,最好的等级制度不是强加的。那是说好的等级制度没有强加在母鸡身上。当它们自身自然产生等级制度时,它们做的很好。它们自己形成等级制度。
Pecking order’ is a great phrase. We use it to describe levels of importance in an organisation. The more important you are, the higher in the pecking order you are. Where does this phrase originate?
“社会等级”是一个很棒的短语。我们用它来形容一个组织里的等级重要程度。你越重要,你所处的社会等级越高。这个短语是从哪里来的?
Well, ’pecking’ describes what chickens do with their beaks. They hit or bite other chickens with them. And the most important or dominant chickens, peck all the others. The top chicken does all the pecking, middle-level chickens get pecked and do some pecking themselves, and some chickens are only pecked by other chickens. So, there is a definite pecking order in chickens.
好的,“啄咬”描述的是母鸡用喙所做的事情。它们用喙攻击或者啄咬其它母鸡。而且最重要或者最具优势的母鸡会啄食其它所有母鸡。特级母鸡啄食所有鸡,中等等级的母鸡被啄食并且会啄咬一些鸡,而一些母鸡只能被其它母鸡啄咬。所以在母鸡之中有绝对的啄序。
Right, time to review this week’s vocabulary, but before that let’s have the answer to the quiz. I asked what the record number of eggs laid by a single chicken in a year was. The options were: a) 253 b) 371 or c) 426? What did you say, Catherine?
好的,是时候回顾这周的词汇了,但是在那之前让我们揭晓测试问题的答案。我问一只母鸡一年的产蛋记录数字是多少。选项有a) 253 b) 371 还是c) 426?你说是什么,凯瑟琳?
I said 371.
我说是371个。
Well, lucky you! You’re definitely top of the pecking order, aren’t you? Because you are right!
好吧,你真幸运!你绝对是社会等级里的顶级,不是吗?因为你回答正确!
That’s a lot of eggs!
那是很多鸡蛋啊!
Indeed. Now, the vocabulary. We are talking about hierarchies - a way to organise a society or workplace with different levels of importance.
确实是。现在到词汇了。我们在谈等级制度——管理有着不同重要等级的团体或者工作场所的一种方式。
An expression with a similar meaning is ’pecking order’, which relates to how important someone, or a chicken, is, within a hierarchy.
一个有相似意思的表达是“社会等级”,指的是某人或者一只鸡在等级制度中有多重要。
A group of chickens is a flock. It’s also the general collective noun for birds as well, not just chickens.
一群鸡就是一个鸡群。它同样也是鸟类的量词,不仅仅是对母鸡而言。
Another of our words was the noun ’productivity’, which refers to the amount of work that is done.
我们的另一个单词是名词“产量”,指的是完成的工作量。
And if you suppress someone’s productivity, you stop them from being as productive as they could be.
而且如果你抑制某人的产量,那你就是阻止它们不像它们能够那样多产。
And finally, there was the verb ’to impose’. If you impose something, you force it on people. For example, the government imposed new taxes on fuel.
最后是动词“强加于”。如果你强加某事,那么你就是把它强加于他人身上。例如政府强加燃料税。
Well, that is the end of the programme. For more from us though, check out Instagram, Facebook, Twitter, YouTube, and of course, our App! Don’t forget the website as well - bbclearningenglish.com. See you soon, bye.
好的,这就是节目的最后。然而更多我们的内容,查看Instagram,Facebook,Twitter,YouTube,当然还有我们的应用程序。也不要忘记我们的网站——bbclearningenglish.com。下次见,拜。
Bye!
拜!

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Question:
What is the record number of eggs laid by one chicken in a year? Is it
A  253
B  371
C  426
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