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Groote Schuur hospital is home to a museum dedicated to the world’s first heart transplant.
Groote Schuur医院也是一所博物馆,该馆纪念了医院在世界首例心脏移植手术上的贡献。
It happened in this room under the steady hand of Dr. Christian Barnard who died in 2001.
第一台心脏移植手术就在这间房间里进行,由主刀医生克里斯敦·伯纳德圆满完成。克里斯敦·伯纳德医生于2001年逝世。
The surgery has barely changed in 50 years.
此后50年间,该手术几乎从未改动。
What has of course dramatically changed is the post-operative immunosuppression, post-operative care
当然,在术后免疫抑制和术后护理问题上,我们已经取得了显著的进步,
and that led to a phenomenal survival rate we have today. 70, 80 % of transplant patients living after 10 years.
而这大大提高了如今的存活率,70%-80%的病人在术后都可继续生活10年以上。
In 1967, the first transplant triggered a debate on whether it was ethical or not.
1967年,第一台移植手术引发了人们针对其是否符合伦理的争论。
Letters written at the time showed a mixed response to the surgery.
通过那个时期的信件,我们可以看到人们对这台手术的不同态度。
One doctor in the former Yugoslavia describes it as the most important event in the history of the human spirit.
前南斯拉夫的一位医生将这台手术描述为人类人文精神历史上最重要的事件。
A man in Turkey wants to send everyone on the surgical team a new pair of shoes, congratulations.
土耳其的一位男士表示,他想给该外科手术团队中的每个人都寄一双鞋以示庆祝。
But some were negative as well. One man in Australia has filed a complaint with the police he thinks the operation was illegal.
但是,也不乏反对的声音。澳大利亚的一位男士向警方提出投诉,他认为手术是非法的。
And this woman in Italy said never men shall be able to replace a human heart as man can’t replace God’s will.
而意大利的一位女士认为,人类永远都不应该替换心脏,正如人类不能违抗上帝的意愿。
Half a century later a lack of education and awareness continues to prevent people from registering as organ donors.
半个世纪后,由于缺乏相关教育和意识,人们仍不愿意登记成为器官捐献者。
But without them none of these men would be alive today. Three of them have new hearts, the fourth a transplanted kidney.
但假如没有他们,今天,这些人可能都已离世。他们中的三个人接受了心脏移植,另一个移植了肾脏。
We don’t have a very strong tradition of people becoming organ donors but why not consider living on through somebody else.
我们还没有形成鼓励人们成为器官捐献者的强有力的传统。但是为什么不考虑一下通过他人继续活在这个世界上呢?
and giving somebody else a second chance and in that way, you know, leave a legacy.
给他人一次重生的机会,并通过这种方式,留下一份遗产。
One legacy of Dr. Bernards pioneering surgery is inspiration.
伯纳德医生开创性手术的遗产之一就是激励了他人。
The cardiology team at the hospital where he worked is continuing to break new ground.
他曾经工作过的医院里的心脏病学团队依旧在继续开辟新领域。
just launching a new plastic heart valve that could revolutionize the treatment of rheumatic heart disease.
他们刚刚推出了一种新型的塑料心脏瓣膜,可以彻底改革风湿性心脏病的治疗方案。
The significance of what we do now is a practical significance because we talk about 33 million patients who would otherwise die.
我们现在从事的事业是具有现实意义的。因为我们的工作涉及3300万名病人。如果我们不努力,他们可能会死亡。
These training nurses have come to be inspired by Dr. Bernard work.
这些培训中的护士过来接受伯纳德医生伟大工作的洗礼。
They’re looking at the first six hearts he transplanted. Some see the vital organ as the center of our emotions, others as a pump.
她们正在观察伯纳德医生移植的前6颗心脏。一些人把这个重要器官看做我们情感的中心,另一些人认为它是生命之泵。
But it’s only understood as well as it is because of Dr. Barnard and his team.
但是我们对心脏奥秘的一切认知,都要归功于伯纳德医生和他的团队。

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Question:
When did Dr. Christian Barnard die?
A  2001
B  2011
C  2010
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