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How could blockchain, the technology originally developed to underpin Bitcoin, save the Amazon rainforest?
人们开发区块链技术的最初目的是巩固比特币体系。而它如何拯救亚马逊雨林呢?
The Amazon is the largest - most biodiverse rainforest on earth spanning eight countries.
亚马逊是世界上最大的,生物多样性最丰富的雨林,横跨8个国家。
Its unique plants and animal species have already helped create industries worth millions of dollars.
它独特的动植物资源已经帮助创造了价值数百万美元的产业。
Many valuable pharmaceutical drugs, for example, are derived from rainforest plants.
例如,许多价值连城的药物都提炼自热带雨林植物。
The problem is the countries of the Amazon basin see too little of the benefits.
但问题在于,位于亚马逊盆地的国家却没有得到太多利益。
In the 19th century Brazil had a thriving rubber industry thanks to the Amazons native rubber trees.
在19世纪,依靠亚马逊当地的橡胶树资源,巴西的橡胶产业蓬勃发展。
But a British explorer took rubber tree seeds from Brazil and used them to establish plantations in Southeast Asia.
但一位英国探险家从巴西采集了橡胶树的种子,并将它们带到了东南亚,建立了种植园。
Virtually wiping out Brazil’s rubber industry.
这几乎摧毁了巴西的橡胶产业。
These so-called bio-pirates have plundered the Amazon ever since making their fortunes from the forests biological riches
这些所谓的生物掠夺者从那时起开始横扫亚马逊雨林,依靠雨林的生物资源获取了大量财富。
while the countries of origin gained little or no benefit.
而原籍国几乎没有得到什么好处。
The Nagoya Protocol implemented in 2010 was an attempt to make the system fairer.
2010年实施的名古屋议定书试图使该制度更加公平。
It involved over 100 countries all agreeing that if money was made from biological assets,
超过100个国家赞同,如果收益是由生物资源带来的,
the country of origin must get a fair share of the benefits.
该生物资源的原籍国必须获取一部分合理利润。
But in reality, the Nagoya Protocol is hard to implement.
但实际上,落实名古屋议定书却困难重重。
Keeping track of where biological assets come from, how they are used and who is profiting from them is difficult.
我们很难追踪生物资产的来源,利用它们的方法以及谁在从中获利。
This is about to change.
这种情况马上就会改变。
The Amazon Bank of Codes is the first phase of a global partnership
亚马逊代码银行是地球代码银行、地球生物基因组计划和世界经济论坛
between the Earth Bank of Codes, Earth Biogenome Project and the World Economic Forum.
建立全球合作关系的第一阶段。
The ambitious project aims to map all complex life in the Amazon by sequencing the genomes of the forests unique plants animals and microbes.
这个雄心勃勃的项目旨在描绘亚马逊的所有复杂生命体,这项工作将通过对森林中独特的动植物和细菌进行基因组测序来完成。
This biological big data will be made accessible for scientific or commercial use whilst ensuring that any money made from it is equally shared.
这项生物大数据将授权给科学或商业性用途,以确保每一笔从中获取的金钱利益都被平等分配了。
If it works it could unlock a new bio economy that is more profitable inclusive and sustainable
如果这项计划能发挥作用,它将开启一个新的生物经济。较当下以伐木业和养牛业为代表的森林工业,
than existing forest industries like logging and cattle ranch.
它将带来更大的利润,更具包容性和可持续性。
Such an ambitious project is possible because of a new technology called blockchain originally developed to support Bitcoin.
这项有雄心的计划的可行性依托于一种名叫区块链的新技术。最初,这项技术被用于支持比特币体系。
Blockchain is a digital record of transactions that can’t be tampered with.
区块链是一种不能被篡改的,用来记录交易的数字记录。
Every piece of biological data from the Amazon whether that’s snake venom, frog DNA or medicinal plants will be given a digital fingerprint
亚马逊的每一项生物数据,无论是蛇毒、青蛙DNA还是药用植物,都将被赋予一个数字指纹。
that is traceable. Whenever the data are used or sold the transactions will be recorded on the blockchain for all to see.
这种指纹是可追踪的。无论这项数据何时被使用或是出售,都将记录在区块链上,供所有人查看。
This will make it possible to track who does what with the Amazons riches
这样就可以追踪谁利用亚马逊的物资做了什么,
and automatically distribute the benefit back to the country of origin.
并且自动为原产国分配收益。
Thus giving the custodians of the forest a stake in its preservation.
这样,森林守卫者在保护森林时就有了后盾。
The project is ambitious and faces several challenges
这项颇有野心的项目面临着一些挑战,
not least get in the countries in the Amazon to help map and share their biological data.
尤其是需要进入这些位于亚马逊地区的国家标注分享他们的生物数据。
If the Amazon becomes a place where knowledge is extracted rather than raw materials
如果亚马逊地区成为一个提供知识,而不是原材料的地方,
local economies could boom even as nature is left to thrive.
正如自然得以繁荣生长一般,当地经济也会发展昌盛。

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Question:
How many countries does Amazon span ?
A  8
B  9
C  10
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