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Trees may look like solitary individuals.
树木或许看起来像是单独的个体。
But the ground beneath our feet tells a different story.
但是我们脚下的土地讲述了一个不一样的故事。
Trees are secretly talking, trading and waging war on one another.
树木在悄悄地交谈,交换以及彼此对抗。
They do this using a network of fungi that grow around and inside their roots.
它们通过生长于根部及附近的真菌网状系统来实现那些事情。
The fungi provide the trees with nutrients and in return they receive sugars.
真菌为树木提供了营养物质,作为交换它们获得了糖类。
But scientists have found this connection runs far deeper than first thought.
但是科学家发现这个联系比他们一开始想到的更深层。
By plugging into the fungal network, trees can share resources with each other.
扎根真菌网状系统,树木可以和其它树木共享资源。
The system has been nicknamed the Wood Wide Web.
这个系统的昵称叫做树维网。
It’s thought that older trees, fondly known as mother trees, use this fungal network to supply shaded seedlings with sugars, giving them a better chance of survival.
人们认为老树,认为温柔的母树,用这种真菌系统来为其遮蔽下的幼苗提供糖类,让它们有更好的机会生存。
Those trees that are sick or dying may dump their resources into the network, which might then be used by healthier neighbours.
那些生病或者要死的树木可能会将自身的资源转存到真菌系统中,或许会被它们较健康的邻树所利用。
Plants also use fungi to send messages to one another.
植物同样适用真菌来彼此传递信息。
If they are attacked, they can release chemical signals through their roots, which can warn their neighbours to raise their defences.
如果它们受到袭击,它们会通过根部释放化学信号,提醒周围的植物提高防御。
But like our internet, the Wood Wide Web has its dark side too.
但是就像我们的互联网,树维网也有它的黑暗面。
Some orchids hack the system to steal resources from nearby trees.
一些兰花侵入真菌系统中,从附近的树木偷取资源。
And other species, like the black walnut, spread toxic chemicals through the network to sabotage their rivals.
而且其它物种,像黑胡桃,通过真菌系统传播有毒化学成分来破坏其竞争者。
Arboreal cybercrime aside, scientists are still debating why plants seem to behave in such an altruistic way.
撇开树栖类在真菌系统中竞争外,科学家仍在争论为什么植物看起来有那样无私的举动。
The hidden network creates a thriving community between individuals.
隐藏的真菌系统创造出一个个体繁荣生长的群落。
When you are next in woodland, you might like to think of trees as part of a big superorganism, chatting and swapping information and food under your feet.
当你下次踏进森林中时,你或许会想到树木作为超个体的一部分,正在你的脚下交谈,交换信息和食物。

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练习题
Question:
Which one is not the mentioned dark side of the fungi system?
A  willow
B  black walnut
C  orchid
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