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The sound of the dentist’s drill is enough to keep plenty away but the global industry for cosmetic dentistry is growing fast.
牙医使用牙钻的声音足以令许多人敬而远之,但全球美容牙科行业发展迅速。
Straightening and reshaping are increasingly popular and whitening products are now easily available off the shelf.
牙齿矫正和整形日益火爆,牙齿美白产品更是随处可买。
Worth nearly $16bn in 2015, the cosmetic dentistry market is expected to hit nearly $28bn by 2024.
2015年,美容牙科市值达到近160亿美元。到2024年,这一数字预计将达到近280亿美元。
And while cosmetic dentistry is big all around the world, it’s most famous in America, where it all began.
尽管美容牙科火遍全球,但在它的起源地——美国,最受欢迎。
Specifically, Hollywood. Or, Hollywood land as it was known back then.
美容牙科在好莱坞,也就是人们曾经称之为好莱坞庄园的地方,尤为热门,
In the 1930s American cinema was booming.
20世纪30年代,美国电影迎来发展黄金期。
After the silent era sound was introduced which meant stars suddenly had to bare their teeth.
随着影视行业的进步,无声电影时代结束,这意味着演员们突然开始要为自己的牙齿操心了。
This would have a dramatic effect on the industry and an even bigger impact on dentistry.
声音的引入给美国电影业带来了戏剧性的变化,也深刻影响了牙科。
One moviegoer was a dentist and his name was Charles Pincus.
牙医查尔斯·平卡斯是一名影迷。
Pincus had recently moved to Hollywood and he sensed an opportunity in the movies.
平卡斯最近搬到了好莱坞地区,他嗅到了电影行业里的商机。
“The camera is cruel in its relentless exposure of the smallest flaw in the mouth. A tooth turned even slightly out of line casts a shadow”,
“镜头无情地暴露了演员嘴中最小的瑕疵。即使是一颗轻微歪斜的牙齿也会带来负面影响。”
wrote Pincus in an essay to fellow dentists.
平卡斯在给同行牙医的一篇文章中写到。
Pincus had connections in the industry –
平卡斯在电影行业中有人脉——
the Max Factor family, who were already revolutionizing makeup for the movies - needed his help in the studio.
在影视化妆领域掀起改革浪潮的蜜丝佛陀家族需要他为工作室提供帮助。
For actors of that generation makeup wasn’t always enough. The notion of oral hygiene was barely in its infancy.
对于那一代演员来说,仅仅依靠化妆是不够的。当时,口腔卫生的概念刚刚起步。
Pincus invented snap on caps to cover crooked or missing teeth.
平卡斯发明了一种可以包住歪牙或缺牙的锁扣式牙套。
Made out of powdered plastic and porcelain they became known as Hollywood veneers.
这种牙套由粉末状的塑料和瓷制成,被称为好莱坞贴面。
Among his patients he counted Joan Crawford and James Dean.
平卡斯的服务对象包括琼·克劳馥和詹姆斯·迪恩。
One of his greatest achievements though was probably the youngest of them all. “She’s been a leading lady from the start.”
但他最成功的案例却是为一位最年轻明星所做的设计。“她是天生的女主角。”
Despite featuring in hits since she was just six years old, audiences would never see Shirley Temple lose a single baby tooth.
尽管秀兰·邓波儿从六岁起就开始出演热门剧集,但观众永远看不到她换牙期缺牙的样子。
That was thanks to Pincus’s veneers. After all, stopping filming for a missing tooth would cost tens of thousands of dollars.
这都要归功于平卡斯的牙套。毕竟,因为缺牙停止拍摄可能会导致数万美元的损失。
Moviegoers were wowed by the perfect smiles of their favorite stars. Having good teeth became an aspiration.
影迷们折服于他们最喜欢的明星的完美笑容。拥有一口好牙成为一种追求。
But despite that developing into a near national obsession with perfect teeth, Americans don’t actually have the healthiest teeth.
尽管追求完美牙齿几乎成为了一种全民信仰,但美国人的牙齿却不是最健康的。
Nearly 1 in 5, older than 65, doesn’t have any teeth at all that might be because of access to healthcare.
在美国65岁以上的老人中,20%满口无牙。这可能是医疗资源的缘故。
Of those who didn’t visit the dentist last year 59% claimed cost as the top reason.
在所有去年没有看过牙医的人群中,59%认为就医费用高昂是最重要的原因。
When countries are ranked by how few fillings or missing teeth they have - the US doesn’t make the top ten.
若根据全国补牙或缺牙的数量升序排名,美国排在10名之外。
In joint first it’s actually the British, despite what everyone thinks.
不管大家怎么认为,排名第一(补牙和缺牙数量最少的)的是英国。
“-Since you’ve been frozen, there have been fabulous advances in the field of dentistry - What do you mean?”
“——自从你被冻起来之后,牙科有了翻天覆地的变化。——你是什么意思?”(讽刺英国人牙齿丑陋)
While Americans might not have the very healthiest of teeth, having the best looking might be just as important.
尽管美国人的牙齿不是最健康的,但拥有最美的外表也许同等重要。
Americans spend more each year on beauty than they do on education. But it’s not pure vanity, it’s an investment.
美国人每年花在美容上的钱比花在教育上的还多。但这不纯粹是为了虚荣心,这是一种投资。
Attractive people tend to earn more, appear more healthy and are more likely to marry.
容貌姣好的人可能会挣到更多的钱,看上去更健康,更容易组建家庭。
Making teeth good for our health in a different way.
这也许从另一个层面上印证了——牙齿健康有益身心健康。

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练习题
Question:
What are the Hollywood veneers made out of?
A  powdered plastic and porcelain
B  powdered plastic and iron
C  powdered iron and porcelain
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