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The amount of solid plastic waste produced since the 1950s that has not been burned or recycled as around four point nine billion tons.
从20世纪50年代开始未被焚消或者循环处理的固体塑料垃圾大约有49亿吨。
This could all have been dumped into a 70 meter deep landfill, the size of Manhattan.
这些垃圾会被全部倾倒进一个70米深的垃圾填埋地,相当于曼哈顿的大小。
While much of it has indeed ended up in landfill around the world,far too much of it has found its way into the natural environment,
尽管世界上大多数垃圾确实被倒进垃圾填埋地,但是人们发现相当多的垃圾还是以自己的方式进入大自然,
with around 10 million tons a year ending up in the ocean.
每年大约有1000万吨垃圾入海。
Over half of all plastic is used just once and then thrown away, taking hundreds of years to decompose.
超过一半的塑料只使用了一次就被扔掉了,却要几百年才能分解。
Apart from the perception that plastic waste is ugly and unnatural, it has also been known to harm marine animals.
塑料污染除了不美观和不环保外,同样被人所知的是它会伤害到海洋生物。
And exposed to salt water and sunlight, it can fragment into micro plastics,
而且塑料垃圾接触到海水和太阳光会碎裂成塑料微粒,
which some people fear can poison sea life and humans who subsequently consume it.
一些人担心会使海洋生物以及随后食用海洋生物的人类中毒。
But is it as big an environmental problem as the plastic panic across the rich world suggests?
但是它正如遍及塑料恐慌的发达地区所说的那样,是一个重大的环境问题吗?
Plastics account for just 10 percent of the 1.3 billion tons of waste produced globally every year.
全球每年产生的13亿吨垃圾中,塑料垃圾仅仅占到10%。
Air pollution is blamed for 7 million deaths per year worldwide.
空气污染要为全球每年700万死亡人口负责。
Ocean acidification, the result of manmade carbon dioxide emissions, it’s disastrous for coral reefs and many other forms of sea life.
海洋酸化——人造二氧化碳释放的结果,对珊瑚礁和其它种类的海洋生物来说它是灾难性的。
In any case efforts are being made to improve the situation or at least lessen the impact of plastic.
不管怎么说,人们正在努力改善环境,或者至少是在降低塑料污染的影响。
In 2008 Rwanda introduced strict laws banning plastic bags.
在2008年卢旺达实施严格的法律,禁止使用塑料袋。
And many countries have since followed with similar initiatives.
而且许多国家从此纷纷效仿相似的措施。
In December 2017, 193 countries committed to a UN plan to stop plastic waste entering the ocean.
2017年12月份,193个国家投身于一项联合国计划,阻止塑料垃圾进入海洋之中。
To eliminate plastic waste reaching the natural environment, it must first be collected.
为了不让塑料垃圾蔓延到大自然中,塑料垃圾必须首先被收集起来。
In developed countries virtually all of it is.
在发达国家,事实上所有垃圾都在这样处理。
But five countries in Asia are dumping more plastic into the oceans than the rest of the world combined.
但是亚洲的五个国家现在倾倒进海洋的塑料垃圾,比世界其它国家合起来的都要多。
If the world wants to tackle plastic pollution, then it should first concentrate its efforts on the biggest culprits in Southeast Asia.
如果世界想要解决塑料污染问题,那么它应该首先将精力集中于最大问题所在的东南亚地区。
Until it does, all other efforts will be a drop in the ocean.
直到做到那一切,其它的努力工作才将会瞄向海洋。

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Question:
When did Rwanda introduce strict laws banning plastic bags?
A  In 2008
B  In 2017
C  In 2018
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