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Think about how the world has changed in just a few decades.
想想在短短几十年间世界发生了怎样的变化?
Are you old enough to remember the world without computers everywhere? Was the weather different in your childhood?
你出生的时候电脑普及了吗?童年时的天气和现在一样吗?
And how do these big changes interact with the economy?
这些重大变化如何与经济相互影响?
The winners of this year’s Nobel Prize in economics, Paul Romer and William Nordhaus,
今年的诺贝尔经济学奖得主保罗·罗默和威廉·诺德豪斯
have each, in their way, transformed how we think about economic growth in just these ways.
分别用他们自己的方式,改变了我们看待经济增长的思路。
Romer, by deepening our understanding of innovation,
罗默加深了我们对创新的理解,
and Nordhaus by modelling how growth affects the climate and is affected by the climate in turn.
诺德豪斯模拟了经济发展是如何影响气候以及反过来被气候影响的。
Before them, economists basically explained growth as a result of physical investment and capital accumulation.
在他们之前,经济学家基本上将经济增长归功于实物投资和资本积累。
Then Romer thought deeply about how productivity depends on ideas
罗默深入思考了知识是如何推动生产力增长的,
how smart we are about producing things even with a given amount of capital and labour.
即使只有一定量的资本和劳动力,我们依然能生产商品,我们是多么聪明啊。
And he created models of how political and economic institutions affect how fast our economies innovate.
他还建立了政治和经济机构如何影响经济创新速度的模型。
Nordhaus brought the science of climate change into economics.
诺德豪斯将气候变化的概念引入经济学。
He built the first integrated models of how economic activity and the climate influence one another in complex ways.
他建立起了首个综合模型,展示经济活动和气候是如何以一种复杂的方式相互影响的。
His work underpins all the estimates of the cost of containing climate change and the much larger cost of doing nothing.
他的工作为成本预算提供了理论支持,从气候变化带来的成本到坐视不管可能造成的更高昂的成本。
In our lifetimes, technological and environmental change have transformed how our economies work.
在我们的有生之年,科技和环境变化已经改变了经济运行的方式。
Next time you marvel about your favourite smartphone app or worry about increasingly extreme weather,
下次,当你惊叹于你最喜爱的智能手机应用或是担忧日益严重的极端气候时,
give a thought to Romer and Nordhaus.
想想罗默和诺德豪斯。
Thanks to them, we are in a better place to find good policies to deal with both innovation and climate change.
多亏了他们,我们才能更好地制定鼓励创新或是应对气候变化的政策。
Their prizes are well-deserved.
他们的诺贝尔经济学奖实至名归。

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练习题
Question:
Who deepened our understanding of innovation?
A  Paul Romer
B  William Nordhaus
C  Gerard Mourou
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