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He’d been told he’d never walk again.
他被告知永远不能再走路了。
Sebastian Tobler was paralyzed from the waist down after a bicycle accident five years ago.
5年前一场自行车事故后,塞巴斯蒂安•托布勒腰以下部位就瘫痪了。
But now thanks to breakthrough technology, he’s taking tentative steps forward.
但是现在由于突破性技术,他正在试探性向前迈步。
So Sebastian basically had no ability to activate single muscles of both legs.
所以塞巴斯蒂安基本上没有能力活动两条腿上肌肉。
But we say like a motor complete for paraplegia.
但是我们说那就好像使截瘫患者的运动神经完整了。
And now with some training, he’s able to really trigger like for example a full leg extension of his leg.
而现在经过一些训练,他真的能够,比如使他的腿能够完全伸直。
So you basically recover a lot of control over the paralyzed muscles despite now more than four years of complete paralysis.
所以即使现在已经完全瘫痪超过四年,他大体上也在控制瘫痪肌肉方面恢复了很多。
It’s all down to a tiny electronic implant, placed over the damaged area of the spinal cord.
这都要归功于一个小型电子植入物,植入在脊髓受伤部位。
It helps boost signals from the brain to his legs, giving Sebastian back some control over his paralyzed limbs.
它帮助增强大脑传递到腿部的信号 ,使塞巴斯蒂安对其瘫痪肢体的控制恢复了一些。
It’s not easy and has taken months of rehabilitation.
那并不容易而且已经花费了数月时间复原。
But it’s life-changing progress.
但是那是一个改变人生的过程。
There are three patients involved in the study.
有三名患者参与该项研究。
The idea that you are repairing the injured spinal cords.
这个概念就是你在修复受伤的脊髓。
So human, we don’t know the mechanism.
所以在人类身上,我们不知道它的机理。
But in animal models we have clearly seen that with this type of training, nerve fibers start regrowing, reorganizing.
但是在动物模型身上,我们清楚地看到通过这类训练,神经元开始再生,被识别。
That’s why the brain regain control over the movement of the paralyzed leg.
那就是为什么大脑恢复了对瘫痪肢体运动的控制。
The first such implant was developed in 2010.
第一款这种类型的植入物产生于2010年。
And earlier this year two other groups of scientists reported similar success.
而且今年早些时候,另外两组科学家报道了相似的成功案例。
But this research goes one step further, targeting the electronic pulses to specific locations.
但是这项研究更近一步,瞄向的是指定位置的电子脉冲。
Yeah, yeah, three steps.
好,好,三步。
It’s really like running a marathon and holding eggs in your hands.
那真的像是手里拿着鸡蛋跑马拉松。
And you’re trying not to squeeze them, and at the same time you’re pushing as hard as you can.
而你要尽量不紧握它们,与此同时,你要尽可能用力向前走。
So you really need to find a good balance of pushing hard then trying to get each and every muscle, the right time in the right place.
所以你真的要找到一种好的平衡点,用力向前走,然后还要让每块肌肉,在恰当的时间处于恰当的位置。
The three men still mostly rely on wheelchairs.
这三名患者仍主要依赖轮椅。
And the scientists are warning the treatment won’t work for the most severe injuries.
而且科学家警告称治疗对较严重的损伤不会有作用。
So room for improvement maybe, but definitely room for hope.
所以或许还有要改进的地方,但绝对有希望。

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Question:
When was the first such implant been developed?
A  in 2010
B  in 2018
C  in 2015
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